Transition Words(転換語)

英語では、アカデミック(学術)的に書く為、話す為、Transition Words(転換語)が超重要になっています。
Transition Words(転換語)と呼ばれるその言葉は、色んな所で使われていて、『例えば』で使われる、“For example”も転換語の1つになります。


  • Additive transitions:情報を付け足したり、参照したりするときに使用
  • Adversative transitions:対立する情報や意見の相違を示す
  • Causal transitions:結果や因果関係を示す
  • Sequential transitions:情報の順序や論文全体の構造を明確にする

Addition(追加系): also, as well as, besides, coupled with, following this, further, furthermore, in addition, in the same way, likewise, moreover, similarly, additionally.

Consequence(その結果系): Accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, for this purpose, hence, otherwise, so then, subsequently, therefore, thus, thereupon, wherefore.

Generalizing(一般的に〜系): as a rule, as usual. for the most part, generally, generally speaking, ordinarily, usually

Exemplifying(際立たせる系): chiefly, especially, for instance, in particular, markedly, namely, particularly, specifically, such as

Illustration(例えば〜系): for example, for instance, for one thing, as an illustration, illustrated with, as an example, in this case

Emphasis(強調系): above all, chiefly, with attention to, especially, particularyly, singularly

Similarity(同様に系): comparatively, coupled with, correspondingly, identically, likewise, similar, moreover, together with

Exception(〜は除く系): aside from, barring, besides, except, excepting, excluding, exclusive of, other than, outside of

Restatement(つまり〜系): in essence, in other words, namely, that is, that is to say, in short, in brief, to put it differently

Contrast and comaparison(対照と比較系): contrast, by the same token, conversely, instead, likewise, on the other hand, on the contrary, nevertheless, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, in contrast

Sequence(順序系): at first, first of all, to begin with, in the first place, at the same time, for now, for the time being, the next step, in time, in turn, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind.

Common Sequence patterns(一貫した順序系):
First, second, third
Generally, furthermore, finally
in the first place, also, lastly
in the first place, pursuing this further, finally
to be sure, additionally, lastly
in the first place, just in the same way, finally
basically, simiarly, as well

Summarizing(要約系); after all, all in all, all things considered, briefly, by and large, in any case, in any event, in brief, in conclusion, on the whole, in short, in summary, in the final analysis, in the long run, on balance, to sum up, to summarize, finally

Diversion(ところで系); by the way, incidentally

Direcition(方向を示す系); here, there, over there, beyond, nearly, opposite, under, above, to the left, to the right, in the distance

Location(場所系); above, behind, by, near, throughout, across, below, down, to the right, against, beneath, in back of, onto, under, along, beside, in front of, on top of, among, between, inside, outside, around, beyond, into, over


ここに書かれいてないTransition Words(転換語)もまだまだいっぱいあります。